25 interesting facts that make men and women different

Men are not from Mars, and women are not from Venus. They are all from the same species on the same planet. But the sexes are definitely not exactly the same, the differences between men and women do exist and are important.

These differences are mainly manifested in biological functions, and can help you better understand your health needs. These differences give both sexes unique advantages and help you achieve your most important task-survival.

But let’s talk about the similarities first, and then return to what makes men and women different.

There are two things you may not know: genetically, 98.5% of the DNA of men and women are identical, and they even have the same hormones. But the ratio of these hormones explains some of the differences between men and women.

Let’s first dive into these 25 interesting facts and explore the important physiological, biological, and nutritional differences between men and women.

  1. Men usually have thicker skin, about 25% thicker than women, and have a higher density of collagen.
  2. The difference in density is not limited to the skin; generally, men have denser and stronger bones, tendons, and ligaments than women.
  3. From the age of 14 to 51, women usually need more iron than men. This is because women lose blood during menstruation, which usually lasts from 28 to 40 days.
  4. On average, men’s muscle mass is usually higher than women’s, and their skeletal muscles move faster and more powerfully. But women’s muscles are better able to resist fatigue and recover faster.
  5. For most women, the second longest finger is the index finger next to the thumb. Men are the opposite. Their ring finger (the one next to the little finger) is usually longer than their index finger.
  6. Folic acid is an essential vitamin, men and women need it. But folic acid is particularly important for women of childbearing age. During pregnancy, women need enough folic acid to support the baby’s neurodevelopment.
  7. Male and female brains differ in structure, the way they process information, and the process of interacting with chemical signals. For example: men have more information-containing gray matter structures, but women have more white matter, which are connected to different parts of the brain. Moreover, women have larger memory centers than men.
  8. Women’s day and night patterns may be shorter than 24 hours. (Usually there are 6 minutes short in a day.) Men are more likely to be night owls. But in the case of insufficient sleep, women’s overall performance will be better than men.
  9. During exercise, women’s bodies mainly burn fat; men burn carbohydrates.
  10. The average testosterone concentration in adult women is about 15-70 nanograms per male (ng/dL), and the average adult male is about 270-1070 nanograms per male. After the age of 30, the concentration of testosterone in men will drop by about one percent every year, but this phenomenon does not occur in women. However, after menopause, the concentration of estrogen decreases.
  11. Men have an Adam’s apple because their throat is larger, which makes the surrounding cartilage more prominent.
  12. The bone mass of men and women will peak around the age of 30. At the age of 40, both men and women begin to lose bone, and menopause accelerates bone loss in women. Therefore, women aged 51-70 need to consume 200 milligrams (mg) more calcium than men of the same age. Therefore, women need 1,200 mg per day and men 1,000 mg per day.
  13. Men’s daily calorie needs are higher than women. There are several reasons for this: higher muscle mass, height, and basal metabolic rate; and the same weight of muscle burns more than twice the calories of fat.
  14. Men and women have different body fat levels. Women have more body fat (about 10%), which is mainly used to maintain the functioning of the reproductive system. The best example is that when a woman’s body fat is too low, menstruation will stop.
  15. Women’s body fat usually accumulates in the buttocks and thighs, while men’s fat is mostly accumulated around the stomach.
  16. The difference in body size, muscle mass, and calorie requirements between men and women shows that men generally require a diet with a higher protein content.
  17. A study found that men’s resting heart rate is lower than women’s, but women’s peak heart rate is lower. During exercise, the heartbeat of men usually increases faster, and then slows down more quickly.
  18. Men usually have more red blood cells (4.7-6.1 million red blood cells per microliter, while women have 4.2-5.4 million red blood cells per microliter).
  19. Women’s blood pressure is usually lower than that of men, regardless of race or ethnicity.
  20. For most of their lives, men and women have the same vitamin D requirements; but elderly women need to increase their vitamin D intake to promote calcium absorption.
  21. Men seldom have regular physical examinations. When going to the doctor, they are more likely to hide or lie about their symptoms.
  22. Men and women have similar needs for zinc. But pregnant women and postmenopausal women need more zinc. Both men and women store zinc in the bones, but men also store zinc in the prostate.
  23. Men are not very sensitive to cold temperatures.
  24. Women have better sense of smell and taste. There are more than 50 cells (neurons) in their olfactory bulb, which is the part of the brain responsible for processing smell. Women also usually have more taste buds than men.
  25. Part of the difference between the way men and women look at the world is partly due to physiological reactions. On average, men are more likely to become colour-blind, but their eyes are also more able to perceive movement; women are more able to distinguish small colour differences.

This is fun, then?

When you know these phenomena that make men and women different, you can bring up these interesting facts in daily conversations whenever you want. Now you can also use these differences to make personal decisions about your health. If you are a woman, you know that you need more folic acid and will burn fat during exercise. If you are a male, you know that you need more calories and fat will accumulate around your stomach. These are important considerations when planning a healthy lifestyle.

What you should not do is to use the differences between men and women to emphasize gender advantages. All the differences listed above have very good biological or physiological reasons. Through human history, these differences have helped men and women survive, and most of them have come from cooperation.

These gender differences should not be regarded as limitations in all aspects. These are just averages and typical situations. Not all men are stronger, and not all women have a better sense of taste. Don’t let the differences between men and women prevent you from achieving your health or life goals.

What is the Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis?

Most people get injuries, which are complex or simple like bruises and, over time, these injuries heal. This healing process may be done through cell division in which a single cell divides to form two or more cells and the process continues like a cycle. This process helps living things grow, for example, more than 2 trillion cells divide each day in humans. There are two types of cell division processes, mitosis and meiosis, each with different characteristics.

Definition

Mitosis:

A single cell divides into two genetically similar cells. The process is asexual and the resulting cells have the same number of chromosomes in each diploid cell, each with the same nucleus.

Meiosis:

Meiosis is the process of sexual cell reproduction in which one cell divides its homologous chromosomes equally to form two haploid cells with half the number of stem cell chromosomes.

Mitosis process

Mitosis occurs in five phases that detail the changes through which the cells go. These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In prophase, chromosomes dissolve in the nucleus while centrioles move in pairs to opposite sides in the nucleus. As this process continues, the spindle fibers begin to form bridges from one end of the cell to the other.

In the next phase, prometaphase, the nucleus that envelops the chromosome begins to rupture and, now without a nucleus, the sister chromatid becomes independent. Long protein chains form the entire cell and are attached to the kinetochore (protein) which is in the center (centromere).

In the third phase, metaphase, kinetochore microtubules induce and attract sister chromatids. The chromosomes are then united in preparation for division.

In anaphase, the two chromatid sisters divide and move toward the cell pole. Although the kinetochore holding the fixed microtubules is attached to the centromere, it begins to shorten in length, while the second group of microtubules not attached to the kinetochore begins to lengthen. The whole cell then begins to stretch and pull in the opposite direction.

Finally, the process enters the telophase stage where each identical chromosome reaches the end pole of the cell while the spindle fibers begin to disappear. On each chromosome, the nuclear membrane forms and forms the nucleolus within each nucleus.

Although not considered part of the mitotic phase, the final process in mitosis is cytokinesis in which cells physically divide before the process begins again.

Meiosis process

Meiosis produces two different cells with half the number of chromosomes compared to the stem cell thus increasing genetic variation. There are two main steps of meiosis; meiosis I and meiosis II. The process of meiosis is important because it reduces the number of chromosomes in an egg or sperm to one set and also allows for the propagation of more than one pair of parental chromosomes.

Meiosis I

Meiosis I has four phases. In the first phase, prophase I, chromosomes appear, the nuclear membrane disappears, and centrioles begin to build spindle fibers to cover the chromosomes. The chromosome then splits into two sister chromatids whose centromere is held together. Thus, this process means that there are two sets of sister chromatids (four chromatids) in two chromosomes. Two non -cat chromosomes cross because the other two remain. Second, in metaphase I, chromosomes line up in the center of the paired spindle fibers. The third phase, Anaphase I, creatures when the same number of chromosomes are divided. In the final phase, telophase I, daughter cells completely divide, chromosomes disappear, and a nuclear membrane is formed.

Meiosis II

Meiosis II also has four phases in meiosis I. First in prophase II, centrioles form spindle fibers as the nuclear membrane disappears and chromosomes become more visible entering into metaphase II where chromosomes are again united in the middle along the spindle fibers. In anaphase II, the chromosome divides into two chromatids that each contain a piece of DNA then the cell divides. Finally, the shape of the nucleic membrane produces four new cells each with different DNA. In men, four cells form sperm while in women, only one cell becomes an egg and the remaining three are reabsorbed into the body.

Summary of Differences

Meiosis occurs in humans, animals, plants, and fungi to produce new genes after a homologous pair. The process of meiosis includes two parts that produce four haploid cells. This process only produces sex cells. Mitosis occurs in all organisms to produce all cells except sex cells. In mitosis, homologues are not paired and division occurs only once to produce 2 identical cells.